Morphological and functional parameters such as chamber size and function, aortic diameters and distensibility,
flow and T1 and T2* relaxation time can be assessed and quantified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).
Knowledge of normal values for quantitative CMR is crucial to interpretation of results and to distinguish normal
from disease. In this review, we present normal reference values for morphological and functional CMR parameters
of the cardiovascular system based on the peer-reviewed literature and current CMR techniques and sequences.
Kawel Boehn N, et al. Normal values for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults and children Nadine Kawel-Boehm1 , Alicia Maceira2 , Emanuela R Valsangiacomo-Buechel3. J Cardiovasc MR 2015; 17: