American Journal of Roentgenology
The purpose of this article is to review the roles of angiography, embolization, and various ancillary techniques in evaluating and managing gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage typically resolves spontaneously or responds to medical or endoscopic management. Refractory hemorrhage may require angiography and transcatheter intervention. Noninvasive imaging evaluation may be useful for characterizing the bleeding source and confirming the presence of active hemorrhage before angiography. If a bleeding source is angiographically identified, superselective catheterization with embolization is typically effective in controlling hemorrhage while minimizing complications.
Zurkiya O, Walker TG. Angiographic Evaluation and Management of Nonvariceal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage. American Journal of Roentgenology 2015; 205:753-763